4th Day of Simbang Gabi (Dec. 19, 2017)

2fe3e76a66d4105790a62f68d8e5622a

Readings:
Jgs 13:2-7; 24-25
Luke 1:5-25

The Text

5In the days of King Herod of Judea, there was a priest named Zechariah, who belonged to the priestly order of Abijah. His wife was a descendant of Aaron, and her name was Elizabeth. 6Both of them were righteous before God, living blamelessly according to all the commandments and regulations of the Lord. 7But they had no children, because Elizabeth was barren, and both were getting on in years.

8Once when he was serving as priest before God and his section was on duty, 9he was chosen by lot, according to the custom of the priesthood, to enter the sanctuary of the Lord and offer incense. 10Now at the time of the incense offering, the whole assembly of the people was praying outside. 11Then there appeared to him an angel of the Lord, standing at the right side of the altar of incense. 12When Zechariah saw him, he was terrified; and fear overwhelmed him. 13But the angel said to him, “Do not be afraid, Zechariah, for your prayer has been heard. Your wife Elizabeth will bear you a son, and you will name him John. 14You will have joy and gladness, and many will rejoice at his birth, 15for he will be great in the sight of the Lord. He must never drink wine or strong drink; even before his birth he will be filled with the Holy Spirit. 16He will turn many of the people of Israel to the Lord their God. 17With the spirit and power of Elijah he will go before him, to turn the hearts of parents to their children, and the disobedient to the wisdom of the righteous, to make ready a people prepared for the Lord.” 18Zechariah said to the angel, “How will I know that this is so? For I am an old man, and my wife is getting on in years.” 19The angel replied, “I am Gabriel. I stand in the presence of God, and I have been sent to speak to you and to bring you this good news. 20But now, because you did not believe my words, which will be fulfilled in their time, you will become mute, unable to speak, until the day these things occur.”

21Meanwhile the people were waiting for Zechariah, and wondered at his delay in the sanctuary. 22When he did come out, he could not speak to them, and they realized that he had seen a vision in the sanctuary. He kept motioning to them and remained unable to speak. 23When his time of service was ended, he went to his home.

24After those days his wife Elizabeth conceived, and for five months she remained in seclusion. She said, 25“This is what the Lord has done for me when he looked favorably on me and took away the disgrace I have endured among my people.”

The division of the episode:
I. vv.5-7 Description of Zechariah and Elizabeth
II. vv.8-23 The Temple Ministry of Zechariah
III. vv.24-25 The pregnancy of Elizabeth the taking out of the shame before men.

Some Observations on the Text
For this third day of the Novena, let us draw lessons from the experience of Elizabeth. Although, the main character of the gospel reading is Zechariah, we reserve our reflection on his experience for another dawn mass.

Elizabeth’s Lineage
Elizabeth was no ordinary woman and wife. As to her ancestral lineage, she belongs to the tradition of a very important priestly clan of Aaron. She is married to a priest, Zechariah, whose forefather is another important personage in the history of Israel –“Abijah.” Her husband is connected to the temple liturgy and services the major temple based religious activities in Israel.

Elizabeth’s Righteouness before the Law
Again, Elizabeth is not an ordinary Jewish lady. She, in her personal life, excels in righteousness. She complements her consecrated ancestral roots by her personal sanctity. All through her life, she was righteous and was blameless before the law. Reverently, more than an ordinary Jewish lass, she painstakingly participated in most, if not all, of the liturgical life of Judaism and most especially lived out the rigors to Jewish righteousness according to the demands of the torah (v.6). Before the eyes of Yahweh and the Torah, Elizabeth was a model and a saint.

Elizabeth’s Test
However, all seems not to be so smooth and easy for this lady. Before the eyes of men, she is judged seemingly wanting and lacking in virtues. The fact that she has not conceived a child was enough proof, for the people of those times, to suspect her as religiously sloppy. Although, her barrenness was beyond her control, its cultural significance, implicating her of spiritual mediocrity, was equally not within her reach to change. And until her advanced year, she has to contend, much more on personal level, the question whether Yahweh was truly just – “Why, despite my efforts of perfect obedience to the torah, Yahweh seemed to be blind to my plight and distant from my longings? Just a child, one tiny voice in my household would be enough to silence my critics,” We would imagine her in a monologue. But this tiny voice, there was not for quite a long time.

With a little stretch of imagination, one leads to consider how hopeless was the situation of Elizabeth for a blessing i.e. the taking away of her “disgrace” before men (v.25). Nature was a bit unkind to her—she was barren; and such hopelessness was punctuated by her being advanced in years. Humanly speaking then, she seemed to be resigned to the reality that righteousness before Yahweh and the Law are no guarantee for divine blessings.

The Gracious Elizabeth

But this was not the case of Elizabeth. She was a woman who, despite the seemingly human impossible condition, never gave up with the divine; in spite of a very much delayed divine intervention, she never ran out of trust and confidence in God’s loving mercy. Elizabeth manifests the hope of a true believer who never demands and sets conditions as to how and when God is to shower his blessings and graces. She is a model of human fidelity to God despite the seemingly divine apathy and unconcern. Indeed, her persevering faith paid off. Her trust and confidence in an ultimately loving God redeemed her from the “disgrace” before men.

Points for Reflection

1. We have been conditioned to a quid pro quo attitude. We set conditions even with God. We promised to be good, to be patience and even honest only if these will be re-paid back by God with blessings at a specific time we wanted him to shower. How much we love to re-edit the song from “In his time He makes all things beautiful, in his time” to “In my time, I make all things beautiful, in my time.”

2. But the story of Elizabeth puts to test our impatience; it tells us that God is God and we are his children; it reminds us that God’s blessings are God’s blessings; and gifts, although may be requested, are never to be demanded.

3. A true believer is one who does not tempt God, but allows God to tempt him. Realizing too that with the test comes growth, maturity and finally blessings in disguise.

More posts about:

ABOUT THE AUTHOR
Fray Leander Barrot, OAR

Fray Leander Barrot, OAR

Leave a Comment





< 2021 >
April
SMTuWThFS
    1
  • All day
    April 1, 2021

    EASTER TRIDUUM STARTS: HOLY THURSDAY

    BIRTHDAY
    Sis. Dolores Nipales, SAR (Talisay Chapter)
    Patricia Carille Peña (RAY-Cavite)

    DEATH ANNIVERSARY
    +Bro. Enrique Ramos, SAR (Provincialate Chapter)

2
  • All day
    April 2, 2021

    GOOD FRIDAY

    BIRTHDAY
    Sis. Edith Davao, SAR (Miranila Chapter)
    Sis. Aurora Singson, SAR (Miranila Chapter)
    Sis. Francisca Kalalo, SAR (Manila Chapter)

    DEATH ANNIVERSARY
    +Sis. Teresita Timbol, SAR (Miranila Chapter)

3
  • All day
    April 3, 2021

    HOLY SATURDAY

    BIRTHDAY
    Sis. Cecilia Lacandazo, SAR (Brooke’s Point Chapter)
    Sis. Lourdes Ducay, SAR (Brooke’s Point Chapter)
    Bo. Joaquin Matus, SAR (Bacolod Chapter)
    Teddy Lomibao (RAY-Urbiztondo)

    ANNIVERSARY OF PRESBYTERAL ORDINATION
    (1994-2021)
    Fray Cirilo Andan

    ANNIVERSARY OF EPISCOPAL ORDINATION
    (1981-2021)
    Most Rev. Gabriel Reyes, D.D. (Diocese of Antipolo)

    DEATH ANNIVERSARY
    +Fray Melquiades Modequillo
    +Sr. Ma. Mercedes de los Sgdos. Corazones, AR
    +Sr. Aurelia Cagang, AR

4
  • All day
    April 4, 2021

    EASTER SUNDAY

    PRAYER INTENTION: FOR VOCATIONS (cf. LAMP 5c)

    BIRTHDAY
    Sis. Arsenia Fajardo, SAR (Manila Chapter)
    Sis. Isidora Dangcalan, SAR (Cebu Chapter)

    DEATH ANNIVERSARY
    +Mo. Mercedes del Sgdo. Corazon de Jesus, AR

5
  • All day
    April 5, 2021

    PATRONAL FIESTA
    Diocesan Shrine of San Vicente Ferrer, Talisay City, Negros Occidental
    Mobile Procession: 8:00 a.m.
    Mass: 10: 00 a.m

    BIRTHDAY\
    Fray Vincent Cadeliña
    Fray Jhyryx Vincent Gamulo (simply prof.)
    Sis. Irene Ortega, SAR (Tondo Chapter)
    Sis. Teresita Datu, SAR (Puerto Princesa Chapter)
    Bro. Allan Timones, SAR (Puerto Princesa Chapter)

    ANNIVERSARY OF PRESBYTERAL ORDINATION
    (1997-2021)
    Fray Ferdinand Fornilos
    Fray Julius Marcos
    Fray Cristopher Maspara
    Fray Corvin Maturan
    Fray Vicente Ramon Jr.
    Fray Anthony Morillo

    DEATH ANNIVERSARY
    +Sr. Toribia de la Virgen de la Paz, AR
    +Sr. Ma. Cristina Verzosa, AR
    +Sr. Ma. Resurreccion Jayme, AR

6
  • All day
    April 6, 2021

    BLESSING OF THE JUBILEE DOOR
    Our Lady of Consolation Parish, Quezon City
    Time: 6:00 p.m.
    Presider: Most Rev. Roberto Gaa, DD

    BIRTHDAY
    Bernadette Zapanta (RAY-Urbiztondo)

    DEATH ANNIVERSARY
    +Sis. Hermenegilda Axalan, SAR (Provincialate Chapter)

7
  • All day
    April 7, 2021

    BIRTHDAY
    Fray Jonathan Jamero

    ANNIVERSARY OF PRESBYTERAL ORDINATION
    (1996-2021)
    Fray Sixto Bitangjol

8
  • All day
    April 8, 2021

    BIRTHDAY
    Fray Leo Alaras
    Sis. Dolores Vingson, SAR (Talisay Chapter)
    Antonette Cayabyab (RAY-Urbiztondo)

    DEATH ANNIVERSARY
    +Sr. Maria de Santa Rita, AR
    +Sr. Candida Umali, AR

9
  • All day
    April 9, 2021

    DAY OF VALOR/ARAW NG KAGITINGAN

    BIRTHDAY
    Sr. Ma. Dolores Daquilanea, AR
    Sis. Marlyn Gomez, SAR (Tondo Chapter)
    Sis. Niebel Isabel Abkilan, SAR (Talisay Chapter)

    ANNIVERSARY OF PRESBYTERAL ORDINATION
    (2006-2021)
    Fray Radni Caparas
    Fray Dexter Palagtiosa

10
  • All day
    April 10, 2021

    BIRTHDAY
    Fray Lounal Jarumay
    Sr. Querubina Cabillon, AR
    Sr. Ingrid Gueriña, AR
    Bro. Chit Evangelista, SAR (Provincialate Chapter)
    Sis. Asuncion Yao, SAR (Provincialate Chapter)
    Sis. Suzan Grandeza, SAR (Bacolod Chapter)
    Sis. Wilfreda Tuban, SAR (San Carlos Chapter)

    DEATH ANNIVERSARY
    +Sr. Brigida Jamisola, AR
    +Sis. Felicisima Barangan, SAR (Cebu Chapter)

11
  • All day
    April 11, 2021

    DIVINE MERCY SUNDAY

    BIRTHDAY
    Sis. Leonida Legaspino, SAR (Cebu Chapter)
    Mike Dave Tilar (RAY-Laray)

    ANNIVERSARY OF PRESBYTERAL ORDINATION
    (1993-2021)
    Fray Ronel Gealon

    DEATH ANNIVERSARY
    +Bro. Wilfredo Alonzo, SAR (Manila Chapter)

12
  • All day
    April 12, 2021

    60th ANNIVERSARY (1961-2021) OF THE FIRST MAN IN SPACE

    BIRTHDAY
    Fray Joel Dequilla
    Sis. Thelma Pacheco, SAR (Tondo Chapter)
    Sis. Luisita Ramos, SAR (Tondo Chapter)
    Sis. Julia Gonzales, SAR (Tondo Chapter)
    April Loraine Lucero (RAY-Balamban)

13
  • All day
    April 13, 2021

    BIRTHDAY
    Sr. Fidela Advincula, AR
    Sr. Herminilda Ceniza, AR
    Sis. Elegenia Parba, SAR (Antipolo Chapter)
    Sis. Gilda Duller, SAR (Brooke’s Point Chapter)
    Maebelle Agramon (RAY-Provincialate)

    ANNIVERSARY OF PRESBYTERAL ORDINATION
    (1980-2021)
    Archbp. Peter Liu Cheng-chung, D.D. (Archdiocese of Kaohsiung)

14
  • All day
    April 14, 2021

    500th ANNIVERSARY OF THE FIRST BAPTISM IN THE PHILIPPINES (that took place in Cebu)

    BIRTHDAY
    Fray Neil Robert Alilain (simply prof.)
    Fray Lloyd Jorem Terania (novice)

    ANNIVERSARY OF SIMPLE & SOLEMN PROFESSIONS
    (1966-2021; 1969-2021)
    Fray Joaquin Jamelo

    ANNIVERSARY OF PRESBYTERAL ORDINATION
    Most Rev. Victor Bendico, D.D. (Bishop of Baguio)
    Most Rev. Socrates Mesiona, MSP, D.D. (Apostolic Vicar of Puerto Princesa)

    (2012-2021)
    Fray Nestor Raras
    Fray James Castelo
    Fray Rellyric Delos Santos
    Fray Ralph Laureen Ciceron

15
  • All day
    April 15, 2021

    BIRTHDAY
    Bro. Pedro Arienda, SAR (Manila Chapter)
    Sis. Ma. Lisa Atotubo, SAR (Talisay Chapter)

    DEATH ANNIVERSARY
    +Bp. Gregorio Espiga, OAR, D.D.
    +Sis. Thelma Calma, SAR (Miranila Chapter)
    +Sis. Zenaida de la Rosa, SAR (Miranila Chapter)

16
  • All day
    April 16, 2021

    BIRTHDAY
    Pope-emeritus Benedict XVI
    Sr. Marissa Tepora, AR
    Sr. Maria Veronica Mendez, AR
    Bro. Edwin Ruiz, SAR (Antipolo Chapter)

    DEATH ANNIVERSARY
    +Sis. Felicisima Tirona, SAR (Cavite Chapter)

17
  • All day
    April 17, 2021

    BIRTHDAY
    Sis. Nenita Badana, SAR (Laray Chapter)

18
  • All day
    April 18, 2021

    GOOD SHEPHERD SUNDAY

    BIRTHDAY
    Fray Amado Lucero
    Sr. Ma. Esperanza Escaño, AR
    Sis. Yolanda Alea, SAR (Tondo Chapter)
    Sis. Sonia Trani, SAR (Tondo Chapter)
    Sis. Lilia Gomez, SAR (San Carlos Chapter)

19
  • All day
    April 19, 2021

    PRAYER INTENTION: FOR THE SICK (cf. LAMP 5c)

    ANNIVERSARY OF PRESBYTERAL ORDINATION
    (1992-2021)
    Fray Joel Naranja
    Fray Emilio Edgardo Quilatan
    Fray Antonio Limchaypo

    (2009-2021)
    Fray Arian Josef Ocheda
    Fray Samuel Eyas

    DEATH ANNIVERSARY
    Sr. Gregoria Ibarra, AR

20
  • All day
    April 20, 2021

    BIRTHDAY
    Sis. Norma Lacopia, SAR (Baguio Chapter)
    Sis. Aurora Cordova, SAR (Laray Chapter)

    ANNIVERSARY OF PRESBYTERAL ORDINATION
    (2003-2021)
    Fray Glynn Ortega
    Fray Albert Pellazar

    DEATH ANNIVERSARY
    +Sis. Leonarda Arnaiz, SAR (Cebu Chapter)
    +Sis. Lorie Gargarita, SAR (Baguio Chapter)

21
  • All day
    April 21, 2021

    BIRTHDAY
    Sis. Edna Paredes, SAR (Puerto Princesa Chapter)

    ANNIVERSARY OF SIMPLE PROFESSION
    (1990-2021)
    Fray Rouel Sia
    Fray Joel Villaruel

    DEATH ANNIVERSARY
    +Fray Cirilo Durana

22
  • All day
    April 22, 2021

    EARTH DAY (cf. LAMP 52)

    BIRTHDAY
    Fray Persiuz Joseph Decena
    Fray Helfrid Palmis (simply prof.)
    Sis. Norma Comandante, SAR (Provincialate Chapter)
    Alyssa Kate Alviola (RAY-Valencia)

23
  • All day
    April 23, 2021

    BIRTHDAY
    Sr. Marilou Delmoro, AR

    ANNIVERSARY OF PRESBYTERAL ORDINATION
    (2000-2021)
    Fray Urbano Galanido
    Fray Mark Rochele Renacia
    Fray Renie Villalino

    DEATH ANNIVERSARY
    +Sis. Asteria Tan, SAR (Cebu Chapter)
    +Bro. Cirilo Salas, SAR (Provincialate Chapter)

24
  • All day
    April 24, 2021

    FEAST OF THE CONVERSION OF ST. AUGUSTINE

    BIRTHDAY
    Fray Bob Cabanag
    Fray Rafael Pecson
    Sis. Elizabeth Pasague, SAR (Tondo Chapter)
    Sis. Fe Santos, SAR (Tondo Chapter)
    Sis. Caridad Bantolinao, SAR (Tondo Chapter)
    Sis. Fidela Loreto, SAR (Cebu Chapter)
    Sis. Gloria Ramos, SAR (Cebu Chapter)
    Kaye Anne Mendoza (RAY-Urbiztondo)

    ANNIVERSARY OF SIMPLE PROFESSION
    (1994-2021)
    Fray Amado Emmanuel Bolilia
    Fray Jonathan Caballero

    (1999-2021)
    Fray Romeo Ben Potencio

    (2004-2021)
    Fray Renier Alviola
    Fray Bob Cabanag
    Fray Arian Josef Ocheda
    Fray Christopher Gaspar

25
  • All day
    April 25, 2021

    FOURTH SUNDAY OF EASTER

    WORLD DAY OF PRAYER FOR VOCATIONS

    BIRTHDAY
    Sr. Hermina Billate, AR
    Sis. Lourdes Alburo, SAR (Cebu Chapter)

    ANNIVERSARY OF SIMPLE PROFESSION
    (1987-2021)
    Fray Cirilo Andan
    Fray Leander Barrot
    Fray Leopoldo Estioko
    Fray Antonio Limchaypo
    Fray Gaudencio Geronimo de Mesa, Jr.
    Fray Nemesio Tolentin

    (1992-2021)
    Fray Ferdinand Fornilos
    Fray Julius Marcos
    Fray Cristopher Maspara
    Fray Corvin Maturan
    Fray Anthony Morillo
    Fray Vicente Ramon, Jr.

    ANNIVERSARY OF PRESBYTERAL ORDINATION
    (2014-2021)
    Fray Jose Teodulfo Jadulco
    Fray Hector Gonzales
    Fray Jess Marco Sanchez

26
  • All day
    April 26, 2021

    BIRTHDAY
    Fray Raymund Alcedo
    Sr. Constancia Reyes, AR
    Sis. Felicely Estadilla, SAR (Manila Chapter)

    ANNIVERSARY OF SIMPLE PROFESSION
    (1997-2021)
    Fray Raymund Alcedo
    Fray Louie Gabinete
    Fray Jay Parilla
    Fray Albert Pellazar
    Fray Niño Cesar Ruiz
    Fray Jerome Virtudazo

    (2003-2021)
    Fray Roy Baluarte
    Fray Allan Rubett Cabatian
    Fray Samuel Eyas
    Fray Dominador Mercado, Jr.
    Fray Allan Jacinto

    (2014-2021)
    Fray Monday Benjamine Edobor
    Fray Andrie Pugate
    Fray Jovy Gallego
    Fray Jessriel Marcha
    Fray Tomokatsu Yamaguchi
    Fray Ifeanyichukwu Maximillian Omem

    DEATH ANNIVERSARY

    +Sr. Ma. Natividad de San Jose, AR
    +Sis. Justiniana Samson, SAR (Cebu Chapter)

27
  • All day
    April 27, 2021

    BIRTHDAY
    Sr. Lucille Encabo, AR
    Sis. Milagros Bangit, SAR (Brokke’s Point Chapter)
    Ivy Ann Panergo (RAY-Urbiztondo)

    ANNIVERSARY OF SIMPLE PROFESSION
    (1996-2021: SILVER JUBILARIANS)
    Fray Jose Alden Alipin
    Fray Don Besana
    Fray James Bumangabang
    Fray Arnel Diaz
    Fray Rommel Rubia
    Fray Edgar Tubio

    (2002-2021)
    Fray Roderick Deguit
    Fray Ian Anthony Espartero
    Fray Teodulo Hayahay
    Fray Excel Saycon

    (2013-2021)
    Fray Kenneth Caligdong
    Fray Keneth Pahamutang
    Fray Paul Demillones
    Fray Robin Ross Plata
    Fray Neil Ryan Jarumay
    Fray Jorr Rabacal
    Fray Elpedio Sarita, Jr.

    DEATH ANNIVERSARY
    +Sis. Natividad Medina, SAR (Cavite Chapter)

28
  • All day
    April 28, 2021

    PRAYER INTENTION: FOR THE MISSIONS (cf. LAMP 5c)

    SPA, VALENCIA: RECOGNITION DAY

    CST-R, SAN CARLOS: RECOGNITION DAY

    BIRTHDAY
    Sr. Maria Lirio Guillermo, AR
    Sis. Ceres Alcantara, SAR (Manila Chapter)
    Sis. Prudencia Fabros, SAR (San Carlos Chapter)
    Bro. Angelito Galosino, SAR (Tondo Chapter)
    Bryan Angelo Ferrer (RAY-Urbiztondo)

    ANNIVERSARY OF SIMPLE PROFESSION
    (2001-2021)
    Fray Feliciano Campomanes Jr.
    Fray Roland Cepe
    Fray Henry Santiago
    Fray Anthony Irineo
    Fray Jonathan Jamero
    Fray Russell Lapidez
    Fray Virgilio Paredes Jr.
    Fray Gideon Antolin Lagrimas

    (2012-2021)
    Fray Mark Saludes
    Fray Roweno Eugenio Hamo

    DEATH ANNIVERSARY
    +Sis. Antonina Lopez, SAR (Cebu Chapter)
    +Sis. Josefina Laboriante, SAR (Talisay Chapter)

29
  • All day
    April 29, 2021

    CST-R, SAN CARLOS: MOVING UP CEREMONY

    BIRTHDAY
    Fray Hector Gonzales
    Sis. Gloria Heidi Bayona, SAR (Talisay Chapter)

    ANNIVERSARY OF SIMPLE PROFESSION
    (1989-2021)
    Fray Emilio Jaruda Jr.

    (1995-2021)
    Fray Urbano Galanido
    Fray Jaazeal Jakosalem
    Fray Mark Rochelle Renacia
    Fray Renie Villalino

    (2006-2021)
    Fray Persiuz Joseph Decena

    ANNIVERSARY OF PRESBYTERAL ORDINATION
    (1986-2021)
    Most Rev. Gerardo Alminaza, D.D. (Diocese of San Carlos, Negros Occ.)

    DEATH ANNIVERSARY
    +Sr. Pilar de San Jose , AR

30
  • All day
    April 30, 2021

    SPA, VALENCIA: GRADUATION CEREMONIES

    CST-R, SAN CARLOS: GRADUATION CEREMONIES

    BIRTHDAY

    Sr. Mavieve Joy Bernaldez, AR
    Fray Jhoben Rodriguez (simply prof.) Sis. Julieta Dawa, SAR (Laray Chapter)

    ANNIVERSARY OF SIMPLE PROFESSION

    (1988-2021)
    Fray Paulino Romel Dacanay
    Fray Ronel Gealon

    (1993-2021)
    Fray Jose Ernil Almayo
    Fray Joel Alve
    Fray Randolph Castulo Castillo Jr.
    Fray Charlito Orobia

    (2000-2021)
    Fray Vincent Cadeliña
    Fray Radni Caparas
    Fray Dexter Palagtiosa

    (2005-2021)
    Fray Michael Catama
    Fray William Cordero Jr.
    Fray Kenneth Joseph Onda
    Fray James Dexter Tanquis

    (2011-2021)
    Fray Nimrod Launio
    Fray Rafael Pecson
    Fray Jerik Troy Siozon
    Fray John Paul Tanquis
    Fray Jayferson Baldelovar
    Fray Leo Neil Bullos
    Fray Sir Michael Dineros
    Fray John Zachary Haguisan
    Fray Lounal Jarumay
    Fray Enrico Nacorda
    Fray Nelson Plohimon

    (2016-2021)
    Fray Ramon Bitancor III

    DEATH ANNIVERSARY
    +Sis. Milagros Concepcion, SAR (Manila Chapter)

 

Categories